Save Indian Classical Music

Written by  //  September 3, 2010  //  Philosophy, Religion, Culture  //  25 Comments

This article is going to be one of those lamenting cries for action that we so often read. The cry this time is going to be for the state of Indian classical music. Not the music in itself or the musicians, for I am by no means qualified to make an evaluation on whether the state of the music and the musicians has deteriorated or improved over the past 50 years or so. But instead it is a lamenting cry precisely over the lack of such qualification. Why do we know so little about the depths and intricacies of Indian Classical Music?

“We” – here stands for an average, musically inclined (you just cannot save people who have 10 different Himesh Reshammiya playlists on their i-pods, including an album entirely comprising of remixed Himesh Reshammiya songs)[1]educated, urban middle class youth in present day India. Personally, I have been a little more fortunate in that I grew up in Madras, a city where mandatory Carnatic music lessons function as tools of social mobility and therefore are greatly encouraged and even violently enforced on uninterested kids. The city also hosts an annual classical music conference which by some accounts is the largest congregation of musicians and audience in the world. This resulted in me having a greater than normal exposure to Indian classical music which is probably why I see painfully from my vantage point that the general awareness among young people in India about the treasures of our classical music is very close to zilch. This seems even more true of Delhi and Bombay, which are the economic and cultural magnets of the country and which therefore ought to be most involved in the promotion of these art forms.

Now, a paragraph qualifying my assertions. Statistics might show that there are a lot more classical concerts happening nowadays. It might also show up that a lot more young people in absolute terms are involved in learning classical music. But my assertions will not be falsified if this turns out to be the case. For my point is rather that classical music has faded away from public consciousness as the pre-eminent musical expression of the country. Classical music has stopped being the aspirational form of music for vast sections of India’s youth.

There are many reasons proffered for this decline. The most important factor being the decline of the princely states which used to be the major patrons of musicians. Indeed, all the best talents of the day in classical music used to be court musicians of one type or the other. The other reason being that classical music (like most hereditary art forms in India) was (and still is) essentially casteist, especially in the South. You had only certain communities, or worse certain very specific families in the community who held the secrets of the particular Gharana and the intricacies of their specific interpretations of the ragas.

However, the early twentieth century was a period of renaissance for these art forms. Adopted by the progressive nationalist movement and rescued from feudal oblivion in the princely states, the performers of classical music became national icons. This was mostly explained by the nationalist movement seeking “local” national heroes of culture who represented India’s art as opposed to Western art. (Again, remember my initial qualification. The number of the performers or the number of the audience during this period may have been negligible or smaller than today’s numbers but they definitely played a disproportionate role in the national consciousness.)[2]

Pandit D.V Paluskar sang the most emotionally resonant version of Raghupati Raghava Raja Ram:

Ustad Bismillah Khan played the shehnai when India attained independence:

When the country was looking for expression during times of significant national turmoil and change, it looked to classical music.

But this honeymoon period did not last. Partly because of the anachronistic insularity maintained by classical musicians in the modern age, partly because of the justifiably immense popularity of old Hindi playback music helmed by composers of great genius like S.D.Burman, Shankar-Jaikishen, Madan Mohan, Naushad (to name a very few), probably because of the increase in the pace of life which did not encourage 6 hour long concerts where it seemed more than half the time was given over to incredibly slow groaning noises made by the artiste, probably because of the all pervasive callousness of the Indian Government which successfully failed in popularizing these art forms (except by way of producing a series of very badly lit and badly edited shows by some of the great masters on DD and AIR), probably because of the access to and the novelty of western music which inevitably became the ‘coolest’ art to pursue, probably because of the influence of post-modernist modes of thinking which removed the capacity for anyone to make any sort of judgment on what is good art and what is bad art (If Himesh Reshammiya is my choice, then it is the glorious celebration of democracy empowering the  hitherto disempowered Himesh fan), probably because the reasons why people listen to music have gone from emotional and aesthetic enjoyment to sheer sensual indulgence, and finally, probably because (and this I think is the most important reason) the sort of patient perseverance and practice one requires even to appreciate the music was not fostered or developed in any meaningful sense at a very early age in any school, Government or private.

Today, the very same nation turns to Bollywood. A.R.Rahman is asked to compose the anthem for the CWG. I am sure the opening ceremony of the games is not going to have the performance by even one of the Hindustani masters in Delhi. And the masterwork of Ustad Bismillah Khan’s Raag Malkauns is reduced to this travesty for a Shahid Kapoor film (and I am not joking the song is actually called Pe Pe Pepein):

Ustad Bimillah Khan version:

Shahid Kapoor’s interpretation:

Now is this is a bad thing? Well, for anyone who has the remotest ideas of the riches that Indian classical music at its soul stirring best can provide, this is  a heretical question. However, I am aware of the warning that writing about music is a bit like reading a Beethoven symphony. You cannot be convinced by my mere words. You have to listen to believe. Listen to the link below, patiently, for that is something which is essential when it comes to appreciating classical music of any sort and also because it is one of those badly lit and edited DD productions I referred to above. If you don’t think your life has undergone a profound spiritual transformation, you can go back to your Himesh Reshammiya remixes.[3]

What should we do about it? That will be the subject of a later piece which will tackle the tricky question: how do you make Indian classical music ‘cool’?

[1]I was alerted to the existence of Himesh Remixes by a friend. You can find one here, though I cannot for my life fathom what the ‘remix’ part is. It sounds the same:

[2] I am not going to address those set of my left-wing readers who question the meaning of “national” or “consciousness” or “Indian art” or “local artists” etc. Not because I don’t appreciate their point but because it is very painful to repeatedly type quotes before and after any term of significance. Again, as I am sure they will appreciate, this is meant to be a provocative blog entry, not a politically correct scholarly dissertation.

[3]However, should you want to read more about Indian Classical Music – you can look at Rajeev Nair, A Rasika’s Journey through Hindustani Music. An excellent introduction that is written in a heart felt manner for the beginner.

About the Author

I am a lawyer by training. Deeply interested in Indian religion, history, art, literature, music and philosophy. Looking to contribute pieces and participate in discussions relating to any of these subjects.

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25 Comments on "Save Indian Classical Music"

  1. Arghya September 3, 2010 at 6:59 pm ·

    Subra, this is an absolutely incredible article. It’s a rant which I think is badly required. Perhaps extending your most significant point on why classical music has faded from popular imagination, I think there is a disconnect now between what sort of things Indians generally (crass generalisation but largely true) want- quick, easy-to-achieve stuff, rather than things which take a long time to bear fruit. We see that everywhere- from instant coffee to the decline of the postal service. And perhaps classical music too is bearing the brunt of this fundamental transformation of our collective mindsets.

  2. Karan Nagpal September 4, 2010 at 11:08 am ·

    I wasn’t introduced to any classical music by my family. When I was 14, I discovered 4 CDs, one each of Mozart, Beethoven, Tchaikowsky and Bach, which my father had purchased from Germany before I was born and never opened them (I still don’t know why he bought them). Listening to those records made me to want to play them, and a 2-year search later, I started learning the western classical violin. Then, about a year back, I read a quote by E.M.Forster (though I’m not sure), about how Indian classical music involved a gradual yielding of the mind, and I realized I knew next to nothing about Hindustani or Carnatic classical music. So I started attending Spic Macay concerts, which were very helpful because I could see great performers like Amjad Ali Khan, Asad Ali Khan, and others perform, and they would also explain the nuances of what they were playing.

    But I still don’t understand Indian classical music. I enjoy listening to it, especially Dhrupad, but that’s different from understanding and being able to appreciate. Also, I prefer western classical, because it moves faster, and for me, it’s easier to interpret it than to interpret Indian classical. From the links you recommended, I enjoyed the Shahid Kapur version a lot more than the original Malkauns.

    Is that a bad thing? Maybe not. Maybe the existence and popularity of some cultural forms exists within the overall framework (what Marx called the superstructure), and as that changes, the popular art-forms change. As a crude example, back when classical music was popular, in the period soon after Independence, India was growing at 2 or 3% a year, maybe a little higher initially; when Himesh is popular, we don’t have time because we’re part of an economy growing at 8-9%. This is just a random thought, but there’s a larger point that classical music is more exclusive than popular Bollywood music, and the latter (including Rahman and Himesh) is as uniquely Indian as is classical music. I would any day prefer the finale of Beethoven’s 9th, the closing rush of the Ode to Joy (as an aside, this is really cool:, to Kajra Re, but I have friends whose preferences are inverse, and I often wonder whether I am anachronistic or they have a bad taste.

  3. Subramanian September 4, 2010 at 3:19 pm ·

    Arghya – Thanks! Yes I think my primary point did get sort of lost in all the ranting – which is that even to appreciate and to be appropriately equipped to appreciate Indian classical music one requires a lot of practice and time. It has to be introduced systematically explaining the various ragas and the rules at a very early age. On your general point, I concur wholeheartedly – probably requires an entire piece in itself.

    Karan- Many thanks for your excellent remarks. My point is not that everyone should end up liking Indian classical music, for choice in music is probably as subjective as say one’s choice in a romantic partner! My argument is not that you force everyone to listen to a lengthy alaap everyday. My point is simply that Indian children should be equipped to be in a position to decide whether they like the music or not.

    Why should Indian kids have to go through this learning only for Indian music and say not for Western Classical music? In response to that I have only a very simplistic answer. Indian music is ours and if we don’t promote it no one else will. All the governments in the West and recently even the East Asian countries like China, Korea etc. promote western classical music with huge government subsidies. If we give a similar push to Indian classical music, probably, we would not be in a situation where a musically inclined student like yourself had to learn about Indian music from E.M.Forster! There is also another aspect to this whole thing. If we need to popularize something among young people, it needs to be made ‘cool’. And at this task, I think Indian classical music has fared even worse than Western Classical music in India. While the latter is still seen as aspirational by some sections of the elite in India, I don’t think a similar perception exists for the former. How we can fix this – I hope to address at a later stage.

  4. Harini September 4, 2010 at 9:47 pm ·

    I do concede that the beauty of Indian classical music is being forgotten, but there is no need to despair yet. Not while we still have younger artists like Amaan and Ayaan, Rahul Sharma etc trying to bridge the gap between the rigor of classical music and the kind of sounds that garner more mainstream attention. Thus, while they stay true to their traditions they market themselves differently from the artists of yore. Further, I do think that by its very nature classical music is elitist. The man on the street appreciates the thumping and pulsating music of Himesh Reshammiya, it’s something he can dance too and sing along with. Whereas L Subramanium appeals to a trained ear who can appreciate the nuances in his mastery. I recognize that this is not a clear cut distinction but it is a distinction all the same. Classical music is not everyone’s cup of tea nor are remixes, but to buttress your argument I would concede that while most remixes are fads, MS can still move people to years today and possibly years hence.

  5. Sumeet September 5, 2010 at 3:07 am ·

    A very interesting post!

    To be honest, I am not too aware of the intricacies and the depths of the classical music myself, so please ignore the inanity and ignorance of my comment, if any.

    Personally, I think that classical music worldwide is suffering a certain decline. This included not merely the Indian classical music, but also other forms of classical arts of music, culture and arts.

    One important reason, in my opinion, is that we live in an age of ‘ready made entertainment’ where most of our sensibilities are formed by television. The medium of television has a lot of weaknesses. I will only indicate two relevant here.

    (1) Most television business find it easier to support and nurture ‘talent’ that can earn more revenue and generate more sound bytes. All this is good from a business point of view, but for the ‘puritans’ this means that quality is often a second aspect and sell ability becomes the most important criteria for an art form to gain prominence in people’s consciousness.

    (2) Also, television as a medium is more suited for quick and short entertainment. Appreciating any classical forms (and Indian in particular) requires a lot of patience and effort on the listener’s part, and in the modern age of ‘half an hour shows’, the listener’s patience has been reduced significantly to allow for such kind of an appreciation.

    Thus, I feel that sadly, because of the advent of modern forms of ‘high speed’ entertainment, the quality entertainment of the yester years has taken a back seat.

  6. Subramanian September 6, 2010 at 5:14 pm ·

    Harini – Many thanks for your comment. On the point that classical music is eltitist by its very nature, I would not entirely agree. While I agree that it requires a fair bit of initial training to appreciate and comprehend, very often this learning is made out to be far more difficult than it actually is. I think most elitist pursuits are rendered elitist by the elites themselves. Those in the know create an aura of exclusivity. This has certainly been the case with classical music (especially the Gharana system of Hindustani music). Excessive jargonisation is another surefire method of keeping something eltitist. Read this review in The Hindu for instance and count the number of Sanskirt/Tamil words:
    It is practically unreadable! If conscious efforts are made to democratize the art form, it might be far less elitist than it is now.

    Sumeet: I agree with everything you say, except for the remark that the decline of classical music is a worldwide phenomenon. Western Classical music might actually be growing in popularity in the West and in certain far East countries like China, Japan and Korea thanks to massive state subsidies. While it is certainly not a “popular” art form in these countries, it is not facing imminent oblivion like in India!

  7. Rakesh September 8, 2010 at 1:15 pm ·

    While I have many things to say in response to this article, the one observation I was compelled to make was the author’s assertion that one of the reasons for the decline in popularity of classical music was the rise of film music. I fail to understand how that is a valid association, for the 50′s and 60′s were times when film composers drew more attention to classical music by composing songs that were based in traditional geets, kajris, thumris etc. Agreed, they were not three hour concerts, but when sung by astute singers such as Lata, they did pique an interest in the young listener to learn the original piece of music – they certainly did mine. Many classical greats have time and again acknowledged the role played by some ‘popular’ singers in making classical music more accessible. A detailed analysis of how film music may in fact have raised our understanding of classical music is beyond the scope of this comment, but in response to the Mansur piece –

  8. aandthirtyeights September 9, 2010 at 12:24 pm ·

    I don’t know enough about the history of Hindustani music to comment, and so I’ll stay away from that part of the debate.

    Carnatic music lost its popular appeal almost entirely due to Brahmin elitism. Briefly, with the coming of the sabha culture, and many of the organisers of the sabha being Brahmins, the temple traditions of Carnatic music (particularly, the nadaswaram tradition and the Devadasi tradition) that were dominated by non-Brahmins withered away. Devadasis don’t exist anymore, the merits of which we will not debate here. But their art has completely disappeared – listen to an old Veena Dhanammal recording, or of Brinda-Mukta singing a padam, and you’ll know what we’ve lost. Many leading Nadaswaram families are heirless – the only student of note of the Sempannarkoil brothers today is Sanjay Subramanian! Even fifty years ago, one heard of a variety of Pillais in Carnatic music outside the nadaswaram traditions – Palani Subramania Pillai (mridangam), Tiruppamburam Swaminatha Pillai (flute), Kumbakonam Rajamanickam Pillai (Violin). And there was M.L.Vasanthakumari, M.S. herself… Today, I can think of Tiruvaarur Bhaktavatsalam (mridangam) only. I’ll have to search for others.

    There is a reason I mentioned sabha organisers specifically. An elderly relative of mine, who ran a sabha, told me that he stopped inviting nadaswaram vidwans because they “drank too much”, “cleanliness didn’t come naturally to non-Brahmins”, they “went out, ate at Military hotels” and came back to his place for the night.

    (There is a (slightly academic, but) compelling account of the Brahminisation of Carnatic Music – this book called “From the Tanjore Court to the Madras Music Academy” by Lakshmi Subramanian or some other such respectable Tam Brahm personality. That traces this history in great detail.)

  9. Subramanian September 10, 2010 at 3:18 pm ·

    Rakesh: Thank you so much for your illuminating comments. As you will no doubt agree, my piece was intended more to provoke rather than to settle with any degree of finality the cause for the deline in the importance of classcial music. Provoke precisely the sort of nuanced response your comment provides. On your point that the master composers of Hindi music might have actually done more to increase the curiosity of the listeners in classical music- I must confess I followed the same path. In fact Madan Mohan and Naushad did more to pique my own interest than any other composer. 2 heavily classical samples here:

    Woh Chup Rahen to (Madan Mohan – Lata Mangeshkar)

    Mohe Panghat pe (Naushad – Lata Mangeshkar)

    However, I dont know if at a general level the increased popularity of bollywood music furthered the cause of classical music. Once it became popular, I think Bollywood music became the pre-eminent choice for any youngster who wanted to become a famous musician. It is this shift in public perception I was talking about in my piece and not disputing the fact that many of the composers drew heavily on the classical tradition.

    Swaroop: Many thanks for your comments. I agree entirely and probably even more vehemently with your points in relation to the influence of brahmins on carnatic music.

    For those readers who are interested, here is the reference to the book Swaroop mentioned: From the Tanjore Court to the Madras Music Academy. Author(s) : Lakshmi Subramanian (Oxford University Press, 2006)

    And here are some samples of Brinda Amma (singing an almost entirely unaccompanied Merusamana (Composer: Swami Thyagaraja, Raga: Mayamalavagowla).

  10. Suhrith September 12, 2010 at 4:53 am ·


    Great piece and you make a lot of valid points. I think it’s important that interest in classical music be invigorated in people in their critical twenties. That is perhaps the best way to ensure or at least give a chance for classical music to regain its position as the preeminent musical expression of the country. I do however, disagree with you that even to appreciate and to be appropriately equipped to appreciate Indian classical music one requires a lot of practice and time. I don’t think one needs to be a practicing musician or one who is trained in music to appreciate classical music. Maybe it will take a certain amount of time, in terms of listening to the form of music, to understand its finer nuances. But I think one can appreciate it regardless of whether one is trained in it or not. As far as the technicalities of it is concerned, that again I believe can be picked up over the course of time without necessarily undergoing formal training. And which is why, I think it’s important to promote the form as something which is capable of being enjoyed by everyone and not restricted to a select section. As to how you make it ‘cool’, I look forward to reading your next post.

  11. Harini September 12, 2010 at 3:19 pm ·

    Subramanian- I agree that the elitism in classical music is due to the attempts by listeners etc. to project it as such, but still, the fact that classical music is not inherently opposed to mass popularization doesn’t help us in finding a solution. Also, comparisons with the popularity of western classical music has to be seen in the context of the balance of power in the world and what people are conditioned to believe is aspirational. Therefore being able to talk at length about and critique say Bach is seen to be a more valued skill that holding forth on M.S. This does not apply to all audiences but it is perception at play largely. So, if we must rescue these dying traditions from ignominy the idea has to be to try and make them seem less pedantic and more works of art that all can enjoy. Also a large part of the music is religious and may not appeal to atheists so here the idea is to divorce the religious overtones from the songs itself. I was reading in this Sundays paper about how a small hamlet in karnataka has managed to introduce villagers to Shakespeare by dubbing and enacting his plays. While puritans of classical music may frown at any modifications I feel the future lies in accepting that while traditional songs etc must be sung a certain way, collaborations and fusions apart from incorporating difference sounds while using the same metre etc are the ways to stay relevant.

  12. Subramanian September 15, 2010 at 2:56 pm ·

    Suhrith- Thanks! I agree with everything you say. I might have overemphasised the requirement of practice. I think what is required is a willingness to get over the initial feeling of incomprehension (and resultant boredom and cluelessness) and listen to the music repeatedly. It is bound to attract you.

    Harini – You have almost stolen all my ideas for the subsequent piece! I was going to write about why western classical music is considered cool while indian classical is not. On your other point, I am not sure if you can secularise Indian classical music and not lose its very core. For instance the devotional grandeur of Jagadhodharanaa will never be replaced by a sort of secularised atheistic rendering of the composition. Even if one does not understand the language it is clear that they are meant in praise and adoration of some god or the other. Since most of the music especially in the carnatic tradition have their origin in the devotional ecstasy of the composer-saints – it might ruin the very soul of the music if one were to try and render it somehow non-devotional. But I may be wrong – for instance most of the compositions of the western composers were meant as chruch music but they seem to have made the journey to a more secular setting. I dont know really!

  13. Suhrith September 16, 2010 at 7:56 am ·

    It’s interesting you say that, because T.M. Krishna recently gave a talk at my college and he said the lyrics, to him at least, is not of much importance. I don’t think the music needs to be rendered in a non-devotional manner, but I suppose it’s not necessary for the musician to be necessarily devotional. I may be wrong, but a musician in someways is like an actor. In any event these compositions were set in a certain milieu and it’s quite impossible for a musician to render the music as was meant by the composer. That being the case, I’d imagine that Indian classical music could also be tweaked to suit a secular setting.

  14. Prabha Prakash October 5, 2010 at 4:03 pm ·

    Your lamenting cry for action ( re Clasical Music) has come out loud and clear. I hope, sincerely hope, that this will draw more people to join in taking the concern to the next level (if not something more).

  15. Suhrith March 1, 2011 at 12:41 pm ·

    The author, in this piece, suggests a way to save classical music.

  16. Rahul Joseph November 25, 2011 at 6:07 pm ·

    Hi Subra,

    This is an absolutely incredible article. I completely concur with the concern that you’ve raised. Being an 18 year old myself, I notice similar things around me. Most of my friends/mates of my age group are quite negligent of classical music. They say that they prefer listening to modern western music. But, the fact is that they force themselves into listening to it just because they feel that its “cool”. They’re far from admiring or even understanding the aesthetics or beauty of that music. Some have the earphones on merely because they see others do it and its cool to own an ipod full of ‘english’ music as they put it. Its quite a shame. Well, obviously all of them arent like that, but a major percentage is. I get shocked when I hear that they are not even aware of the legends of our bollywood music industry like Kishore Kumar, Mohammad Rafi, Asha Bhosle..etc. Then, how can I expect them to know greats of classical world like Pandit Bhimsen Joshi or Pandit Jasraj or Nusrat fateh ali khan.
    I believe that alot of our youth is subconsciously deprived of quality music. Sadly, they are keeping themselves away (due to their lack of exposure to our rich classical music). And so is the case with Ghazals now. The youth doesnt understand the meaing of “soulful” music. They dont have that word in their dictionaries.
    Its imperative that our youth awakens and realize the beauty of classical music. They need to realize what quality music is.
    It hurts when such divine music of our country gets neglected. I agree our composers are completely aware and they wouldnt mind composing classically inspired music, but the question that often creeps in their minds(which actually prevents them from making such music) is that “Would the young generation accept it?”. I think answer is “Yes, they would definitely start to, sooner or later, as they’re more and more exposed. Anways, i do believe the time would come when the youth would start to realize this.
    I mean how can someone not admire and get bedazzled by these videos? —–>

  17. Aksh February 28, 2013 at 7:44 pm ·

    It is a very deep and a meaningful article and I completely agree with your worry of saving the traditional Indian art forms. Sir, I am a fourth year architecture student and need some help with the music art forms . I ll be grateful if u can provide me with some knowledge about some forms of Indian music which have declined over the years and they should or can be revived. This will be of great help to me.


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